The difficulty faced by medical professionals and traditional therapy, in offering a complete, long lasting and an effective form of treatment for psychological dependency continued to remain a major health and social problem until recently. But today with the introduction of some of the effective hypnotherapeutic techniques psychological dependence can be successfully managed. Jayasinghe, H. B. (2005). Hypnosis in the Management of Alcohol Dependence. European Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis, 6(3), 12-16.
Understanding alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse disorders can be complex and confusing. Addicted individuals compulsively consume alcohol and drugs despite increasingly negative consequences. The majority of drinkers are able to regulate their intake of alcohol without loss of control. However, alcoholics and addicted individuals, like passive spectators watching their lives careen out of control, seem helpless to alter the course of this downward spiral. Through the years, psychologists and psychiatrists have developed a variety of theoretical models that try to explain the complexity and paradoxical nature of addictive behavior. What would motivate individuals to act in such a seemingly self-destructive manner? Is it a genetic susceptibility? Is it a learned behavior caused by dysfunctional thoughts and behaviors? Is it a disorder of self caused by early childhood trauma? Is it an attempt to restore homeostasis to a dysfunctional family system? Recent research has brought new knowledge that is leading to the coalescing of the models. The research now shows that addiction is a “biobehavioral disorder” for which some individuals have a genetic susceptibility and that alcohol or drug abuse can cause physical changes to the brain structure. These physical changes lead to compulsive use. In addition, the disease is complicated by learning or conditioning factors, social factors, family dynamics, and developmental factors as well as the presence of comorbid disorders such as anxiety and depression.
Margolis, R. D., & Zweben, J. E. (2011). Models and theories of addiction. In , Treating patients with alcohol and other drug problems: An integrated approach (2nd ed.) (pp. 27-58). Washington, DC US: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12312-002
Simultaneously assess the relationship between the family support perception and the intensity of hopelessness, depression, and anxiety symptoms in alcohol or drug dependent (AOD) patients and in non-AOD dependent control group (CON). Method: 60 patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for AOD dependence and 65 individuals with similar profile, but not dependent on AOD completed the Family Support Perception Inventory (FSPI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). Results: Logistic regression analysis indicated that high scores in family autonomy (OR = 0.08), and low scores in hopelessness (OR = 0.64) were negatively correlated with AOD dependence. Individuals with high scores in BAI had higher probability (OR = 1.22) of belonging to the AOD group, as well as those who reported previous psychiatric treatment (OR = 68.91). Only in the AOD group the total FSPI scores presented significant correlation with depression, anxiety, and hopelessness. Conclusions: Individuals with AOD dependence and low scores of family support perception also presented high scores of depression, anxiety, and hopelessness, suggesting that FSPI scores could be a useful ‘social marker’ of AOD dependence with psychiatric comorbidities. These data also reinforce the relevance of evaluating family support in AOD treatment planning
Lemos, V., Antunes, H., Baptista, M., Tufik, S., Mello, M., & Formigoni, M. (2012). Low family support perception: A 'social marker' of substance dependence?. Revista Brasileira De Psiquiatria, 34(1), 52-59
Emotional and interpersonal impairments associated with alcohol-dependence have been recently explored, but the distorted cognitive representations underlying these deficits remain poorly understood. The present study aims at exploring the presence of maladaptive social self-beliefs among alcohol-dependent individuals, as these biased self-beliefs have been recently shown to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of other psychopathological states (social anxiety and depression). Methodology/Principal findings: Twenty-five recently detoxified alcohol-dependent participants and 25 matched controls filled in self-report questionnaires evaluating maladaptive social self-beliefs, interpersonal problems and several comorbid states (anxiety, social anxiety, depression). As compared to controls, alcohol-dependent individuals showed higher scores than controls for the three subcategories of maladaptive social self-beliefs (high standards, conditional beliefs and unconditional beliefs). Our key finding was that when comorbidities were controlled for, alcohol-dependence was associated with a specific bias towards exaggerated high standards in social contexts. Moreover, these high standards beliefs were strongly correlated with interpersonal problems. Conclusions/Significance: These results provide the first insights into the influence of cognitive biases on interpersonal problems in addictive states, and suggest that maladaptive self-beliefs could have a central influence on the development and maintenance of alcohol-dependence
Maurage, P., de Timary, P., Moulds, M. L., Wong, Q. J., Collignon, M., Philippot, P., & Heeren, A. (2013). Maladaptive social self-beliefs in alcohol-dependence: A specific bias towards excessive high standards. Plos ONE, 8(3),
Quality of life is recognised increasingly as an important component in the evaluation of disease processes. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses accompanying alcohol addiction, especially severe cases of anxiety or depression, may have a negative impact on quality of life. This study focused on the impact of severity of anxiety and depression on quality of life of 150 alcohol-dependent patients treated in hospital. Design and Methods: Consecutive patients were evaluated using relevant quality of life scales at the study's onset and 3 and 6 weeks after the complete disappearance of withdrawal symptoms. Patients were classified into three groups: patients with alcohol dependence only, patients with depression and patients with anxiety. Results: The level of anxiety and depression decreased from the initial evaluation to week 3 in patients with a high level of anxiety and depression, whereas the level of anxiety increased in the alcohol only-dependent patients. Initial evaluation conducted using the quality of life scales indicated significant differences between the three patient groups: physical health (F = 7.92, p = 0.001); psychological (F = 32.21, p = 0.001); social relationship (F = 3.45, p = 0.03); and environment (F = 7.79, p = 0.001). At weeks 3 and 6, quality of life for physical health, psychological and environment areas differed significantly between patient groups, but social relationships did not. At weeks 3 and 6, quality of life was lowest in patients with depression and highest in alcohol only-dependent patients with a low severity of depression or anxiety. Discussion and Conclusions: Symptoms of anxiety and depression accompanying alcohol addiction lead to an increase in severity of the problems associated with the addiction and have a negative effect on quality of life. Measurement of quality of life within the scope of treatment programmes would help to identify treatment requirements in addicted patients.
Saatcioglu, O., Yapici, A., & Cakmak, D. (2008). Quality of life, depression and anxiety in alcohol dependence. Drug And Alcohol Review, 27(1), 83-90. doi:10.1080/09595230701711140
The efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of depressive symptoms was subjected to a meta-analysis. Studies were identified using Google Scholar and 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsiTri, PsychLit, Embase, and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group (CCDAN). The keywords used were (a) hypnosis, (b) hypnotherapy, (c) mood disorder, (d) depression, and (e) dysthymia. Six studies qualified and were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software package. The combined effect size of hypnosis for depressive symptoms was 0.57. Hypnosis appeared to significantly improve symptoms of depression (p < .001). Hypnosis appears to be a viable nonpharmacologic intervention for depression.
Shih, M., Yang, Y., & Koo, M. (2009). A meta-analysis of hypnosis in the treatment of depressive symptoms: A brief communication. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 57(4), 431-442.
Extreme fear and avoidance of a particular object or situation characterize phobic anxiety. Such phobias are common and can interfere with the daily functioning of people who suffer from them. For example, people with phobic anxiety of public speaking endure substantial distress, or avoid situations in which public speaking is required, or both. Many careers and social functions require the ability to communicate in groups. Thus, avoidance of public speaking interferes with occupational functioning, social activities, and relationships (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Cognitive-behavioral therapies are currently the treatments of choice for phobic anxiety disorders, with emphasis placed on the use of in vivo exposure to a graduated hierarchy of feared situations. In this chapter, I present the use of hypnosis in treating a case of public-speaking anxiety, a frequently reported fear. Although this treatment was designed to address a specific phobia, treatment principles from this case can easily be extended and adapted for use with simple phobias, generalized social phobia, and other anxiety disorders
Schoenberger, N. E. (1996). Cognitive-Behavioral Hypnotherapy for Phobic Anxiety. In S. Lynn, I. Kirsch, J. W. Rhue (Eds.) , Casebook of clinical hypnosis (pp. 33-49). Washington, DC US: American Psychological Association.
The misery caused by alcohol addiction to the addict and to his family members and the entire society in general, is a matter of serious concern to health authorities. Alcohol dependence can be broadly divided into physiological dependence and psychological dependence. The physiological dependence can be successfully controlled with appropriate medical management. But the difficulty faced by medical professionals in offering a complete, long lasting and an effective form of treatment for psychological dependency continued to remain a major health and social problem until recently. But today with the introduction of some of the effective hypnotherapeutic techniques such as guided imagery, visualization techniques, dream induction, rational emotive behavior therapy and aversion therapy, psychological dependence can be successfully managed.
Jayasinghe, H. B. (2005). Hypnosis in the Management of Alcohol Dependence. European Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis, 6(3), 12-16.